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英美社会与文化入门习题1

I . Fill in the blanks: (30 points)

1. ____________ , the ancestor of the present Queen, Elizabeth II, united England under his rule in 829.

2. The doctrine of the "divine right of kings" held that_______________, _____________ .

3. During the civil war in the 17th century, those who represented the interests of Parliament are called ____________ and those who supported the King were called ___________________ .

4. In 1215 , some feudal barons and the Church forced King __________ to sign the ______________ to place some limits on the King's power.

5. In medieval times, kings would summon a group of wealthy barons and representatives of counties, towns and cities __________________ called _____________ to raise money.

6. In 1689, Parliament passed _____________ to ensure that the King would never be able to ignore Parliament.

7. In the 18th century , King George I left the job of chairing cabinet meetings to one of his ministers who later came to be called _____________ .

8. In Britain , the official head of state is ____________ while the real center of political life is in __________________ .

9. The most important function of the Parliament is to ______________ .

10. According to tradition, most peerages can only be passed through the ___________________ lines.

 

II . Choose the correct answer from each of the following (30 points)

1. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of British government?

A. It offers the Queen high political status and supreme power.

B. It is both a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy.

C. It is the oldest representative democracy in the world.

D. It has no written form of Constitution.

2. Which of the following king was executed in the civil war?

A. James I

B. James II

C. Charles I

D. Charles II

3. What happened in 1215?

A. It was the year of Norman Conquest in British history.

B. Forced by barons, King John signed the Magna Carta.

C. Henry IV granted the Commons the power to review money grants.

D. King Egbert united England under his rule.

4. Which of the following is NOT true about the Great Council?

A. They included barons and representatives from counties and towns.

B. They were sometimes summoned by the kings to contribute money.

C. They later developed into what we now know as the Cabinet.

D. They represented the aristocrats as well as the communities.

5. Under whose reign was the Bill of Rights passed?

A. James II

B. William of Orange

C. Oliver Cromwell

D. George I

6. Which of the following is NOT true about the Constitution?

A. It is a document, which lists out the basic principles for government.

B. It is the foundation of British governance today.

C. Conventions and Laws passed by Parliament are part of the Constitution.

D. The common laws are part of the Constitution.

7. Which of the following about the Parliament is NOT true?

A. There are no legal restraints upon Parliament.

B. Strictly speaking, the Queen is part of the Parliament.

C. Parliament has the supreme power of passing laws .

D. Parliament has no power to change the terms of the Constitution.

8. Which of the following about the Queen is NOT true?

A. The Queen selects the Prime Minister and the Cabinet.

B. The Queen symbolizes the tradition and unity of the British state.

C. The Queen acts as a confidante to the Prime Minister.

D. The Queen is the temporal head of the Church of England.

9. Which of the following about the House of Lords is NOT true?

A. Lords do not receive salaries and many do not attend Parliament sittings.

B. It consists of the Lords Spiritual and the Lords Temporal.

C. The lords are expected to represent the interests of the public.

D. Most of the lords in the House of Lords are males.

10. Which of the following about the House of Commons is NOT true?

A. Members of Parliament elect the Prime Minister and the Cabinet.

B. MPs receive salaries and some other allowances.

C. MPs are expected to represent the interests of the public.

D. Most MPs belong to the major political parties.

11. Which group of people can NOT vote in the general election?

•  Members in the House of Commons

•  Lords in the House of Lords

•  The UK citizens above the age of 18

D. The UK resident citizens of the Irish Republic

12. By whom is a "vote of no confidence" decided?

•  The House of Commons

•  The House of Lords

•  The two major parties

D. The Prime Minister

13. Which of the following is NOT true about the electoral campaigns ?

A. Big parties can buy time to broadcast their policies on the television.

B. There is a limit on the amount of money candidates can spend in their constituency campaign.

C. Candidates and their supporters go door-to-door persuading voters to vote for them.

D. Candidates criticize each other's policies to show how good their own policies are.

14. How many seats in the House of Commons should a party hold at least in order to win the election?

•  651

•  326

•  626

•  351

15. Which of the following party adopts a "fatherly" sense of obligation to the poorer people in the society?

•  The Conservative party

•  The Liberal Democrats

•  The Party of Wales

D. The Labor party

16. Which of the following description about the Conservative party is NOT true?

A. It has been in power for an unusually long period of time.

B. It prefers policies that protect individual's rights.

C. It receives a lot of the funding from big companies.

D. It is known as a party of high taxation levels.

17. Which government lost a vote of no confidence and was forced to resign in 1979?

•  The Conservative government

•  The Liberal government

•  The Labor government

D. the radical government

18. Which period of time in British history was described as "private affluence and public squalor"?

•  The 1940s

B. The 1970s

C. The 1980s

D. The 1990s

19. Which of the following about the "poll tax" is NOT true?

A. It was introduced by the Conservative government.

B. It was introduced by the Labor government.

C. It was an attempt to change local government taxes.

D. It was criticized by many citizens.

20. Who is the leader of the Labor party at present?

•  John Major

•  Tony Blair

•  Harold Wilson

•  Margaret Thatcher

I . Fill in the blanks : (30 points)

1. The full name of the United Kingdom is___________________ and __________________.

2. The island of Great Britain is made up of ______________________, ______________and ____________.

3. The United Kingdom has been a member of __________since1973.

4. Britain is now a ____________society that produces a population of which 1 in 20 are of _________ethnicity.

5. London plays a significant role in _______ economic and cultural life. It's not only the financial __________of the nation, but also one of _______major international financial centers in ____________.

6. Britain consists of ________nations, including England, ________ , and___________.

7. Britain is a country with a history of invasions. In 43 AD Britain was invaded by_________, in the late 8th century they experienced _______ raids from Scandinavia and in the 11 th century they suffered invasions from____________.

8. The Anglo-Saxons began to settle in Britain in __________ century.

9. The capital of Britain is _______ which has great influence on the UK in all fields including__________ , ____________ and_____________.

10. Name two Scottish cities, which have ancient and internationally respected universities: ____________and _______________.

11. The battle of Bannockburn led by Robert the Bruce succeeded in winning the full independence of _______________.

12. Both the Scottish and Welsh people elect their members of parliaments to the London Parliament and each holds ___________ and __________ seats respectively.

13. The capital of Scotland is________ , which is well-known for its natural____________.

 

II . Tick the correct answer in each of the following: (30 points)

1.Three of the following are characteristics of London . Which of the four is the exception?

A. London is a political, economic and cultural center of the country.

B. London has a larger population than all other cities in England .

C. London is not only the largest city in Britain , but also the largest in the world.

D. London has played a significant role in the economic construction of the country.

2. The Tower of London , a historical sight, located in the center of London , was built by

A. King Harold

B. Robin Hood

C. Oliver Cromwell

D. William the Conqueror

3. Who were the ancestors of the English and the founders of England ?

A. The Anglo-Saxons

B. The Normans

C. The Vikings

D. The Romans

4. Which is the largest city in Scotland ?

A. Cardiff

B. Edinburgh

C. Glasgow

D. Manchester

5. Why did the Scottish Kings decide to form an independent singular Scottish state in the 9th century?

A. They needed a unified independent nation to fight against Viking raids.

B. They felt it necessary to develop their own industry.

C. They were threatened by the Anglo-Saxons' invasion.

D. They had to do it in order to resist the English.

6. Where do the majority of people in Scotland live?

A. In the Highlands

B. In the Lowlands

C. In the Uplands

D. In the west of Scotland

7. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

A. Wales was invaded by the Romans.

B. Wales was occupied by the Anglo-Saxons.

C. Wales was conquered by the Normans .

D. Wales was threatened by the English.

8. Which of the following parties in Scotland still wants an independent Scotland ?

A. The Labor Party

B. The Liberal Party

C. The Scottish Nationalist Party

D. The Conservative Party

9. When did Scotland join the Union by agreement of the English and Scottish parliaments?

A. In 1715

B. In 1688

C. In 1745

D. In 1707

10. Llywelgn ap Gruffudd is more than a simple historical figure for the Welsh. He is almost considered the legendary hero of Welsh nationalism because he is almost considered the legendary hero of Welsh nationalism because

A. He became the first Prince of Wales in 1267.

B. He brought the English under his control.

C. He led a historic uprising against the English.

•  He unified Wales as an independent nation.

11. In the seventeenth century, the English government encouraged people from Scotland and Northern England to emigrate to the north of Ireland , because

A. They wanted to increase its control over Ireland .

B. They had too many people and didn't have enough space for them to live in.

C. They intended to expand their investment.

D. They believed that Ireland was the best place for them.

12. In 1969, the first British soldiers were seen on Northern Ireland Street . They came first

A. To maintain traffic order in Northern Ireland .

B. To protect the Catholic people.

C. To protect the Protestant people.

D. To replace the Royal Ulster Constabulary since they were unable to keep social order.

13. Northern Ireland is the smallest of the four nations, but is quite well-known in the world for

A. Its most famous landmark, the " Giant's Causeway ".

B. Its rich cultural life.

C. Its low living standards .

D. Its endless political problems.

14. Faced with conflicting demands the British government chose a compromise and organized a partition of Ireland , because

A. The British government wouldn't be able to control Ireland any longer by force.

B. The British government intended to satisfy both sides--Catholics as well as Protestants.

C. Catholics in Ireland demanded a partition of Ireland .

D. Protestants welcomed the idea of partition.

15. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

A. Sinn Fein is the legal political Party in Northern Ireland .

B. Those who want to unite Northern Ireland with Britain are called Unionists.

C. Social Democratic and Labor Party is a very important political Party in Britain .

D. Those who show their loyalty to the British Crown are called Loyalists.

16. In the early 1970s, the IRA

A. Killed many Protestants and Catholics.

B. Burned down the houses of Catholics.

C. Murdered individuals at random.

D. Carried out a series of bombing and shooting and attacked the security forces as their main target.

17. 1972 was the worst year of the political troubles in Northern Ireland , because

A. 13 Catholics were shot dead by the police.

B. 468 people were killed in Northern Ireland .

C. The government carried out a policy known as "internment".

D. Bloody killing of 468 people fortified Catholic opposition to the British presence in Northern Ireland .

18. Why did the British government decide to replace the Power-Sharing policy with "direct-rule' from London ?

A. The Power-Sharing policy was not accepted by the majority of Protestants.

B. The Northern Irish Parliament could not govern the province effectively.

C. The Power-Sharing policy couldn't be carried out.

D. All the above.

19. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

A. In 1981 , some convicted IRA prisoners went on a hunger-strike.

B. They demanded for the status of being "political prisoners" by starving themselves.

C. Margaret Thatcher's government gave in to their political demand.

D. The death of prisoners revitalized the political movement of Sinn Fein.

20. How many counties do you know there are in Northern Ireland ?

A. 26

B. 6

C. 32

D. 20

 

英美社会与文化入门习题2

I. Explain the following:

1 . the meaning of being an American according to Crevecoeur

2. American Indians

3. Columbus ' "discovery "of America

4. the Religious Reformation

5. the first English permanent settlement in North America

6. Puritanism

7. the Pilgrim Fathers

8. Quakerism

9. William Penn

10. the Declaration of Independence

11. George Washington

12. Thomas Jefferson

13. Benjamin Franklin

II. Fill in the blanks:

1 . In 1782, the Frenchman who settled in Pennsylvania first asked the question "what is an American" in his book_______________________.

2. The New World . of America was peopled as a result of two long-continuing immigration movements, the first one from _______________ and the second from and______________.

3. American Indians had developed three brilliant civilizations .before the Europeans arrived. These three civilizations were____________, ______________ and________________.

4. Columbus discovered the New World in the year of_____________________.

5. The English king claimed the territory of North America based on the voyage of_______________ .

6. _____________ was the first to start the Religious Reformation and the next important leader of the Reformation was________________.

7. The first permanent settlement in North America was established in today's ____________ in the year of___________________.

8. The crop_________ that was transplanted from the West Indian saved Virginia .

9. Lord Baltimore who set up the colony _____________ was_____________ in religion.

10. New England was founded by a group of religious believers called _____________ while Pennsylvania was planted by_______________ who was a ______________ in religion.

11. Two most important principles of the Holy Experiment were ______________ and______________.

12. _____________ officially proclaimed the birth of a new American nation.

13. Name two of the taxes imposed on North American colonies by the British Parliament on the eve of the American Revolution: _________________ and ______________.

14. The institution that began to assume the function of a national government during the American Revolution was ________________.

III. Choose the correct answer to each of the following questions:

1. Which of the following statements was correct around the time of the American Revolution?

A. The American had the mixed blood of Europeans or their descendants.

B. The American had the mixed blood of Europeans with American Indians.

C. The American had the mixed blood of Europeans with blacks.

D. The American had the blood of the English and their descendants only.

2. Which of the following was NOT one of the three forces that led to the modem development

of Europe ?

A. The growth of capitalism.

B. The Renaissance.

C. The Religious Reformation.

D. The spiritual leadership of the Roman Catholic Church.

3. The following were the main Reformation leaders except___________.

A. Martin Luther.

B. Martin Luther King.

C. John Calvin.

D. The English King Henry VIII.

4. The following were some of the characteristics of Protestantism except_____________.

A. challenging the authority of the Pope.

B. salvation through faith.

C. salvation through the church.

D. establishing a direct contact with God.

5. Which of the following American values did NOT come from Puritanism?

A. separation of state and church.

B. respect of education.

C. intolerant moralism.

D. a sense of mission.

6. Lord Baltimore's feudal plan failed because_________________.

A. there were more Protestant than Catholics in Maryland .

B. the wilderness of the continent made the plan impossible.

C. there was plenty of land while labor was scarce.

D. the English king did not like the plan.

7. The following were the founding fathers of the American Republic except_______________.

A. George Washington.

B. Thomas Jefferson.

C. William Penn.

D. Benjamin Franklin.

8. The theory of American politics and the American Revolution originated mainly from_____________.

A. George Washington.

B. Thomas Jefferson.

C. John Adams.

D. John Locke.

9. Which of the following was NOT a denomination of Protestantism?

A. Catholics.

B. Puritans.

C. Quakers.

D. Church of England.

10. "No taxation without representation" was the rallying cry of________________.

A. the settlers of Virginia .

B. the people of Pennsylvania .

C. the colonists in New England .

D. the people of the 13 colonies on the eve of the American Revolution.

Answer the following Questions

1. What is an American? Comment on the answer to the question by Crevecoeur.

2. How did modem development in Europe influence the settlement of North American colonies?

3. What was the unique American phenomenon ? How did it come into being? Do you think it still exists in today's American society?

4. In what way did Puritanism influence American culture?

5. How is it that American development was characterized with capitalism from the very beginning? Why do you think the feudal system failed in early America ?

6. Comment on the Holy Experiment by William Penn.

7. What were some of the causes of the American Revolution? Explain the Declaration of Independence .

 

I . Explain the following:

1. the Articles of Confederation

2. a federal system

3. the making of the U.S. Constitution

4. the legislative branch

5. the executive

6. the judicial branch

7. the Bill of Rights

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. After the War of Independence was won, the national government was called _, and the agreement that guided the government was _____________.

2. The city where the Declaration of Independence was signed and where the U.S . Constitution was made is _______________.

3. The Constitutional Convention was held in the year of ___________ and the president of the Convention was_________________.

4. The Constitution set up a federal system with______________.

5. A federal system is one in which_____________ is shared between _______________and ________________with some rights reserved to each.

6. The U.S. federal government consists of the following three branches: _________________, _______________ and ___________________.

7. The Congress is divided into ______________ with ___________ members who serve two-year terms, and _____________ with lawmakers who serve six-year terms.

8. Groups who try to persuade Congressmen to vote for or against a bill are known as ______________.

9. The Supreme Court is composed of ____________ chief justice and ____________ associate justices.

10. The Supreme Court has the function of determining whether Congressional legislative or executive action violates the Constitution. This power is called _______________.

11. There are _____________ amendments to the U.S. Constitution.

12. Two major political parties are ______________ , which is thought to be more liberal, and___________, which is believed to be more _________________.

III. Choose the correct answer of the following questions:

1. Which of the following statements was NOT correct? When the War of Independence was

over,

A. each new state had its own government.

B. each new state made its own laws and handled all of its internal affairs.

C. the national government was called the Congress with little power.

D. the relationships between the states and the national government were clearly defined.

2. According to the author, the Articles of Confederation failed because of the following reasons. Which is not true?

A. The new states did not cooperate with the Congress or with each other.

B. Some new states wanted to be free from the Union .

C. The Congress could not raise money to pay the national army and to pay debts owed to France and other nations.

D. The Congress had no power to tax any citizen.

3. Which of the following states refused to participate in the Constitutional Convention?

A. Virginia.

B. Rhode Island .

C. New York .

D. Maryland .

4. Which of the following statements was NOT correct? When the Constitution was written,

A. there was a Bill of Rights in the Constitution.

B. there was no Bill of Rights.

C. The Constitution did not have any words guaranteeing the freedoms or the basic rights and privileges of citizens.

D. a "Bill of Rights" was added to the Constitution 4 years after the Constitution was made.

5. Which of the following is the only branch that can make federal laws, and levy federal taxes?

A. The executive.

B. The legislative.

C. The Judicial.

D. The president.

6. Which of the following is NOT a power of the president?

A. The president can veto any bill passed by Congress.

B. The president has the authority to appoint federal judges when vacancies occur.

C. The president can make laws.

D. The president has broad powers, with the executive branch, to issue regulations and directives regarding the work of the federal departments.

7. The Bill of Rights consists of_________

A. 10 very short paragraphs in an amendment.

B. 10 amendments adopted in 1787.

C. 10 amendments added to the Constitution in 1791 .

D. the amendments concerning the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press and the freedom of religion.

8. Which of the following is NOT guaranteed in the Bill of Rights?

A. The freedom of religion.

B. The freedom of searching a person's home by police.

C. The freedom of speech and of the press.

D. The right to own weapons if one wishes.

9. The following were NOT written into the Constitution in 1787 except _________________

A. the Bill of Rights.

B. the judicial review·

C. the political party system

D. the powers of the president.

10. The New Deal was started by _

A. Franklin Roosevelt.

B. J. F. Kennedy.

C. George Washington.

D. Thomas Jefferson.

Questions

1. Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? Was it necessary to change the Articles of Confederation and write a new constitution for the new nation of the United States at the time?

2. What is a federal system? What are some of the major differences between a federal system and a confederation?

3. What are some of the major powers of each of the three branches of the U.S. government? How are the three branches supposed to check and balance each other?

4. What is the Bill of Rights? Do you think that it was necessary to write the Bill of Rights explicitly into the U.S. Constitution?

5. What are the, two political parties in the United States ? Do you think they are fundamentally different?

 

I. Explain the following in English:

1. "WASP" culture

2. religious liberty in the U.S.

3. the Baptists in the U.S.

4. the Methodists in America

5. the Catholics in the U.S.

6. Three Faiths in the U.S.

7. religious diversity

American characteristics of religion

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. "WASP" stands for ________________________________________.

2. The Great Awakening of the 1740s tried to breathe new feeling and strength into religion, and cut across the lines of ___________________________________________.

3. According to John Locke, the right to govern comes from an agreement or__________________ voluntarily entered into by free people.

4. __________ believes that reason teaches that God exists but leaves man free to settle his own affairs.

5. The majority of the Catholics in the U.S. are descendants of immigrants from ____________, _______________ and Poland .

6. Prayer and Bible reading in public schools in the U.S. are ______________.

7. The Three Faiths in the U.S. refer to _____________, _______________ and ________________.

8. According to the text, in England , __________ percent of the people except Catholics go to church less than once a month; in Sweden _____________ go to church at all. Yet __________ of American Protestants are active church members.

9. Freedom of religious belief or non-belief is provided in the ______________ in the U.S. Constitution.

10. The first Catholic president in the U.S. was _____________.

III. Choose the correct answer to each of the following questions:

1. Which of the following was NOT a Protestant denomination?

A. The Baptists.

B. The Catholics.

C. The Methodists.

D. The Presbyterians.

2. Which of the following is unconstitutional in the United States ?

A. Catholics can build their own schools and hospitals.

B. Non-Catholics can go to Catholic-run schools.

C. Public money is provided to support religious schools.

D. Women have the right to abortion.

3. Which of the following is NOT regarded as one of the three basic religious beliefs?

A. Protestant.

B. Catholic.

C. Islamic.

D. Judaism.

4. Which of the following is true?

A. Many Catholics are not opposed to abortion.

B. Many evangelical Protestants do not object to abortion.

C. Orthodox Jews are for abortion.

D. Liberal Protestants and Jews join non-believers in maintaining that abortion is a basic right for women.

5. Which of the following continues to have an all-male clergy?

A. The Catholic Church.

B. The Protestant Episcopal Church.

C. The United Methodist Church .

D. Jewish Congregations.

6. The following are distinctively American features of religion except ____________

A. Various religious groups have coexisted in the U.S. more harmoniously than Europe .

B. Scientific and economic advance and material prosperity have not been accompanied by a decline in religious faith.

C. There has been little concentration on doctrine or religion argument in the U. S.

D. There has been very much concentration on doctrine or religious argument in the U.S.

7. In the United States , people go to church mainly for the following reasons except ____________

A. for finding a job in society.

B. for having a place in a community.

C. for identifying themselves with dominant values.

D. for getting together with friends.

8. Which of the following statements is NOT correct according to the author?

A. American mainstream culture is based on Protestantism.

B. Protestant Church is an established church by law in the U.S.

C. The Catholic Church is the largest single religious group in the U.S.

D. The largest church is of the Protestant faith in the U.S.

Questions

1. In what way do you think that religious freedom was a historical necessity in the United States ?

2. What is the relationship between government and religion in America ?

3. what promotes the diversity in American religion?

4. What are some of the features in religion that are particularly American? What are some of the major differences between American religion and religion in Europe ?

Exercises

I . Explain the following in English:

1 . The Letherstocking Tales

2. Transcendentalists

3. Walden

4. Red Scarlet Letter

5. Moby Dick

6. Leaves of Grass

7. Mark Twain

8. The naturalists

9. The Waste Land

10. The "Lost Generation"

11. The Harlem Renaissance

12. The "Beat Generation"

II. Fill in the blanks:

1 . and are the two major writers of the post-Revolutionary period.

2. "The Masque of the Red Death" and "The Fall of the House of Usher" were stories written by_____________ .

3 . In 1852, a New England woman named Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote a novel titled__________________ , which intensified

the political debate on slavery.

4. Mark Twain's ______________ is considered the greatest novel in American literature.

5 . Henry James' major works include___________ and ___________________ . His works often described Americans living in__________________ .

6. Upton Sinclair's novel _ exposed the horrible lives of meat-packing factory workers.

7. Ezra Pound's poetry is famous for _, the use of strong, concrete images.

8. T. S. Eliot's long poem _ revealed a pessimistic view of post-World War I society. He dominated the so-called movement in poetry.

9. After World War 1, many novelists produced literary works of disillusionment. Some of them lived abroad and were known as the“

A. Edgar Allan Poe

B. Natty Bumppo

C. Washington Irving

D. Rip Van Winkle

10. Which of the following is considered an American masterpiece?

A. The Last of the Mohicans

B. The Legend of the Sleepy Hollow

C. "The Masque of the Red Death"

D. Moby Dick

11. Which of the following was written by Thoreau?

A. Nature

B. Walden

C. The Scarlet Letter

D. The Fall of the House of Usher

12. Whitman's poetry has the following characteristics except—·

A. fragmented haunting images

B. long irregular lines

C. celebrating the American spirit

D. free-flowing structure

13. Mark Twain's works are characterized by the following except______________

A. sense of humor

B. egotism

C. jokes

D. tall tales



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